Written by DORDIA ANINDITA ROTINSULU. Under direction of SURACHMI SETIYANINGSIH and ABDULGANI AMRI SIREGAR. Thesis. School of Graduate Program. Bogor Agricultural University. January 2013.
Investigation of Avian Influenza Virus on Birds in Pramuka Bird Market, Jakarta
Avian Influenza (AI) which is caused by influenzavirus A of the family Orthomyxoviridae cause an important impact, including in health, social and economic sectors. AI viruses (AIV) can infect various birds and mammals, therefore bird market as a meeting place for human and poultry can potentially transmit AI virus among birds or from birds to human. Indonesia is a habitat of various bird species; therefore research about AIV on bird, especially which are sold in the Pramuka Bird Market, as the biggest bird market in Jakarta, is urgently needed.
In general, the aim of this study was to examine the presence of AIV in various bird species sold in Pramuka Bird Market, Jakarta. Specifically, the aims of this study were: (1) to assess the presence of H5 AI virus in oropharyngeal swab, cloacal swab, and fecal samples of various bird species using real time Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (rRT-PCR); (2) to detect the presence of antibodies against AIV (H5) in various bird species using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test, and (3) to determine the relationship among weather and geographic origin of birds to the prevalence of AIV.
During April until September 2011, a number of 862 field samples from 28 families and 96 bird species were collected in Pramuka Bird Market, Jakarta. These field samples consisted of 649 fecal samples, 114 cloacal swab samples, and 99 oropharyngeal swab samples. As many as 7 of 649 faecal samples (1.08%) were positive AI. However, none cloacal or oropharyngel swab were positive AI. Positive fecal samples were detected in four bird species, which are three magpie-robins (Copsychus saularis, family Turdidae), two white-eyes (Zosterops palpebrosus, family Zostropidae), a yellow-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus goiavier, family Pycnotidae), and a robin (Leiothrix lutea, family Sylviidae).
In addition to field samples, during April until September 2011, 178 birds from 21 families and 47 species were purchased from the same bird market. From 178 birds, two birds (1.12%), which were two white-eyes (Zosterops palpebrosus, family Zostropidae), were positive AI. The whole positive samples were from Passeriformis order. However, based on rRT-PCR result, there were no H5 positive samples.
A number of 163 serum samples were collected from 178 purchased birds from Pramuka Bird Market. Based on HI test using antigen A/Legok/IPB-SGT/1/2004 (H5N1) and A/Ck/West Java/PWT-Wij/2006 (H5N1), seven of 163 birds (4.29%) had positive antibodies to AI. There were differences in HI titers between the two antigens. By using A/Legok/IPB-SGT/1/2004 (H5N1) antigen, two sample were strongly positive (titers ≥ 24), while the other five samples were weakly positive (titers <24). Strongly positive results were obtained from two scooty-headed bulbul (Pycnonotus aurigaster, family Pycnotidae). While the weakly positive results were obtained from a swan (Cygnus sp., family Anatidae), a duck (Anas sp., family Anatidae), a munia (Lonchura maja, family Ploceidae), a spotted-dove (Streptopelia chinensis, family Columbidae), and a black-crowned night heron (Nyctorax nyctorax, family Ardeidae). By using A/Ck/West Java/PWT-Wij/2006 (H5N1) antigen, the average HI titer obtained was higher. Five samples were strongly positive (Lonchura maja, Cygnus sp., Nyctorax nyctorax, and two Pycnonotus aurigaster), while samples from Anas sp. and Streptopelia chinensis were weakly positive.
Most of the positive samples were from birds caught in Java Island, but beside that there was also one imported bird. Avian influenza virus were detected in singing birds, whereas the antibody against AI (H5) were detected in waterfowl, wetland birds, and singing birds. There was no significant relationship between the prevalence of AI and weather, despite an increase in AI cases during the transition season. Results of this study provide important information about the prevalence of AI virus on birds sold in Bird Market, Jakarta. Further research is needed to determine the subtype other than H5 AI virus in birds and other animals sold in Pramuka Bird Market, Jakarta.